哥伦布CAT区块链知识课堂第五十四讲

2020-06-01 21:15 区块链布道者社群联盟


区块链:赋予用户“隐私保护”权利




中国科学院院士、清华大学高等研究院“杨振宁讲座”教授王小云表示,在数字经济时代,大数据安全和个人隐私保护的问题是比较严峻的。


用户隐私保护最根本的是要让用户真正拥有处理个人隐私数据的权利,而区块链所具备的分布式账本、不可篡改性等特征都为其提供了无限的想象空间。


一、个人隐私保护现状




隐私泄露

在如今的大数据时代,数据即价值,价值即财富,不法商贩非法窃取、贩卖海量用户的隐私信息,以此获得灰色收益。据相关部门统计,五种最常见且被过度收集的个人信息分别是个人资料、位置信息、手机号码、联系人信息和上网记录。


外部条件

首先,至今为止,并没有一个为业界所公认的个人隐私定义,进而导致个人隐私的范围就难以限定;其次,我国法律在很多方面都涉及到了隐私权的保护,不过这些法律条款的侧重点更偏向于人格权利的保护,缺少对隐私权的明确且个体的定义。


二、基于区块链的隐私保护解决方案


1. 技术原理



零知识证明

零知识证明实质上是一种涉及两方或更多方的协议,即两方或更多方完成一项任务所需采取的一系列步骤。证明者向验证者证明并使其相信自己知道或拥有某一消息,但证明过程不能向验证者泄露任何关于被证明消息的信息。


同态加密

同态加密是基于数学难题的计算复杂性理论的密码学技术。这是一种无须对加密数据进行提前解密就可以执行计算的方法,对经过同态加密的数据进行处理得到一个输出,将这一输出进行解密,其结果与用同一方法处理未加密的原始数据得到的输出结果是一样的。


2. 解决方案




增强个人隐私控制

区块链则可以让用户保留对个人信息的控制权:首先,公民可以在区块链上创建一套独立的身份,控制了这个身份就能有效保护好自己的隐私;其次,区块链分布式存储的方式,能够有效抵御外部的攻击;最后,区块链上的交易数据对所有用户都是开放和透明的,便于个人紧密追踪自身数据的使用情况,从而加强对个人信息的监控。 


防止隐私窃取

区块链通过控制第三方对个人身份的侵入,保障公民的隐私无法被其他用户窃取。此外,区块链的非对称加密技术,为使用者分别配备用于公开接受信息的公钥和用于解密私密消息的私钥。私钥采用高级加密的策略,可以有效限制他人的访问。同时,私钥只能单项加密而不能反向解密,进而起到防止个人隐私遭到第三方窃取的作用。 


降低隐私泄露风险 

目前的服务器架构,大体都经由一个中心化的服务器来传输数据与指令。区块链将重塑互联网间数据的传输方式:首先,区块链采用分布式的网络结构,使得设备之间能够保持共识,而无须与中心服务器和数据库进行验证;其次,这种架构没有中心数据服务商,也就不存在批量用户信息泄露的问题。从根本上来说,解决隐私权泄露的问题,就是要让个体真正掌握处理隐私数据的权利。区块链的分布式账本、非对称加密等特性,为这一赋权提供了有效的技术支撑和实现路径。




英文版

(English)




Wang Xiaoyun, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a professor at the Institute of Advanced Studies of Tsinghua University, said that in the era of the digital economy, the issues of big data security and personal privacy protection are relatively serious.


The most fundamental of user privacy protection is to allow users to truly have the right to process personal privacy data, and the distributed ledger and non-tampering features of the blockchain provide unlimited imagination space for them.


First. Status of personal privacy protection



Privacy leak


In today's big data era, data is value and value is wealth. Illegal vendors illegally steal and sell a large number of users' private information to obtain gray income. According to statistics from relevant departments, the five most common and over-collected personal information are personal data, location information, mobile phone number, contact information and online records.



External situation


First, to date, there is no single definition of personal privacy recognized by the industry, and the scope of personal privacy is more difficult to limit; secondly, our country ’s laws involve protection of privacy in many aspects, but the focus of these legal provisions The preference for the protection of personality rights lacks a clear and individual definition of privacy.


Second, the privacy protection solution based on blockchain


1. Technical principles



Zero knowledge proof


Zero-knowledge proof is essentially an agreement involving two or more parties, that is, a series of steps that two or more parties need to take to complete a task. The prover proves to the verifier that he believes he knows or possesses a certain message, but the proof process cannot reveal any information about the certified message to the verifier.


Homomorphic encryption


Homomorphic encryption is a cryptographic technique based on the computational complexity theory of mathematical problems. This is a method that can perform calculations without decrypting the encrypted data in advance. Processing the homomorphic encrypted data to obtain an output, decrypting this output, the result is the same as processing the unencrypted original data The output is the same.


2. Solution



Enhance own privacy control


Blockchain allows users to retain control of personal information: first, citizens can create an independent identity on the blockchain, and controlling this identity can effectively protect their privacy; secondly, the distribution of blockchain The storage method can effectively resist external attacks; finally, the transaction data on the blockchain is open and transparent to all users, which facilitates individuals to closely track the use of their own data, thereby strengthening the monitoring of personal information.


Prevent privacy theft


By controlling the invasion of personal identities by third parties, the blockchain guarantees that citizens' privacy cannot be stolen by other users. In addition, the asymmetric encryption technology of the blockchain provides users with a public key for publicly receiving information and a private key for decrypting private messages. The private key adopts advanced encryption strategy, which can effectively restrict the access of others. At the same time, the private key can only be encrypted in a single item and cannot be decrypted in the reverse direction, thereby preventing the personal privacy from being stolen by a third party.


Reduce the risk of privacy disclosure


The current server architecture generally transmits data and instructions via a centralized server. Blockchain will reshape the way of data transmission between the Internet: First, the blockchain uses a distributed network structure, so that devices can maintain consensus without having to verify with a central server and database; second, this architecture has no center Data service providers, there is no problem of leakage of bulk user information. Fundamentally speaking, to solve the problem of privacy disclosure, it is necessary for individuals to truly grasp the right to handle private data. The distributed ledger and asymmetric encryption of the blockchain provide effective technical support and implementation paths for this empowerment.



 

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