哥伦布CAT区块链知识讲堂第五十八讲

2020-07-12 09:33 区块链布道者社群联盟

大数据时代区块链重构新型信任体系




区块链技术本质上是一种特定的分布式存取数据技术,通过网络中各个节点中的参与者共同参与数据的计算和记录,并且相互验证数据信息的有效性。从这一层面来看,区块链技术也是一种特定的数据库技术。


在我们生活中,任何一个举动都会产生大量数据,并且这些数据信息呈突飞猛进式增长。区块链技术不仅在金融支付领域有所应用,而且将会逐渐扩展到我们生活中的任何一个领域,如应用到去中心化的微博、微信、租房、打车等活动中。因为区块链将可以让人类无地域限制、 去信任的方式来进行大规模协作。然而,这一切都是建立在区块链具有信任特点的基础上的。可以说,区块链的出现为大数据时代重新构造了信任体系。


区块链信任体系的基石



数学和理论上保证了任何一个内容都会生成出一个唯一的hash值,相同的内容都会生成相同的hash值,不同的内容都会生成出没有冲突的不同hash值。从hash值,不可能推出原来的内容。这样就保证数据的不可窜改和数字签名的可信。


PKI(Public Key Infrastructure/公钥体系)保证了任何公钥加密的内容,只有唯一的对应的私钥,能够解开,保证了私密性和通讯过程中的安全性。任何私钥的数字签名的内容,只有相应的公钥才可以验证通过,保证了数据的integrity,传输的过程中不可能被窜改。拿到的内容,只可能是持有公钥对应的私钥的用户产生的。保证了对数据来源的信任。从数学和密码学上,保证了区块链上数据的所有权的正确和数据的可信。


区块链的技术价值在于改变传统互联网的底层协议,使得其能够解决现有社会存在的信任不足、交易安全无法保障的问题。在区块链的世界里,现实世界的规则都被代码重新编译,利用智能合约来执行,因此人们不必再去信任与他发生交易的人,因为算法是可信的。这样发生在互不信任的双方之间的交易就有可能实现。


区块链的去中心化、自信任、分布式账本、数据不可篡改、可溯源的特点使得基于互联网的价值传输可以实现。这样就能够从本质上改变现有市场的信任模式,降低欺诈风险。


大数据、互联网革命与区块链下的信任体系创新



信任体系再造包括交易工具、交易权威和交易记录三方面的再造。2009年,比特币成为一个全新的去中心化信用交易工具,更为重要的是区块链作为比特币的底层技术呈现在大众面前,并开始应用于除金融业之外的其他领域。


区块链之所以能够在很多领域被广泛应用,是因为区块链具有价值转移和信用转移的优势,这是一种“去信任”架构。在这个架构下,系统中的所有参与方即便非常陌生,也可以毫无顾忌地放心完成交易和协作,并且在这个架构下,基于不可篡改的特点,所有的参与节点实际上都是在对数据库进行维护,使得所有的数据都是精准的、真实的、可以被信任的。信任对于大数据来讲,往往是最为薄弱的一项。


简而言之,区块链建立了一个由无数独立且自主管理的计算机构成的账本网络,每一笔交易的发生都记录在案,任何第三方都可以对记录的数据内容进行验证,交易历史被记录在区块链体系中。基于分布式账本的加密方式,如果想对账本数据内容进行篡改,就需要对全网数据进行篡改才能实现,然而这样的结果势必造成巨大的更改成本。



总之,在大数据时代,基于区块链的再造信任体系,无论是技术层面上的协议还是应用和监管层面上的场景实现再造,都是传统信任体系的重大创新。


英文版

(English)



Blockchain technology is essentially a specific distributed access data technology. The participants in each node of the network jointly participate in the calculation and recording of data, and mutually verify the validity of data information. From this perspective, blockchain technology is also a specific database technology.

In our lives, any one action will produce a lot of data, and the information of these data is growing by leaps and bounds. Blockchain technology is not only applied in the field of financial payment, but will gradually expand to any area of our lives, such as decentralized activities such as Weibo, WeChat, renting houses, and taxis. Because the blockchain will allow humans to conduct large-scale collaboration without geographical restrictions and trust. However, all of this is based on the trust characteristics of the blockchain. It can be said that the emergence of blockchain has reconstructed the trust system for the era of big data.



The cornerstone of the blockchain trust system


Mathematics and theory guarantee that any content will generate a unique hash value, the same content will generate the same hash value, and different content will generate different conflict-free hash values. From the hash value, it is impossible to deduce the original content. This ensures that the data cannot be tampered with and the digital signature is trusted.

PKI (Public Key Infrastructure/Public Key System) guarantees that any public key encrypted content can only be unlocked with a unique corresponding private key, ensuring privacy and security during communication. The content of any digital signature of a private key can only be verified by the corresponding public key, which ensures the integrity of the data and cannot be tampered with during transmission. The content obtained can only be generated by the user who holds the private key corresponding to the public key. Ensure the trust of the data source. Mathematics and cryptography ensure the correct ownership of the data on the blockchain and the credibility of the data.

The technical value of the blockchain is to change the underlying protocol of the traditional Internet, so that it can solve the problems of insufficient trust and transaction security that cannot exist in the existing society. In the blockchain world, the rules of the real world are recompiled by code and executed using smart contracts, so people no longer have to trust the people who have transactions with him, because the algorithm is trustworthy. In this way, transactions between parties that do not trust each other are possible.

The characteristics of decentralization, self-trust, distributed ledgers, non-tamperable data and traceability of the blockchain make Internet-based value transmission possible. This can essentially change the trust model of the existing market and reduce the risk of fraud.

Big data, Internet revolution and innovation of trust system under blockchain


The reconstruction of trust system includes the reconstruction of transaction tools, transaction authority and transaction records. In 2009, Bitcoin became a brand-new decentralized credit trading tool. More importantly, blockchain as the underlying technology of Bitcoin was presented to the public and began to be used in other fields besides the financial industry.

The reason why the blockchain can be widely used in many fields is because the blockchain has the advantages of value transfer and credit transfer. This is a "detrust" architecture. Under this architecture, even if the participants in the system are very strange, they can safely complete transactions and collaborations without hesitation, and under this architecture, based on the characteristics of non-tampering, all participating nodes are actually in the database. Perform maintenance so that all data is accurate, true, and trustworthy. For big data, trust is often the weakest item.

In short, the blockchain has established a ledger network composed of countless independent and self-managed computers. The occurrence of each transaction is recorded. Any third party can verify the content of the recorded data. Transaction history It is recorded in the blockchain system. Based on the distributed ledger encryption method, if you want to tamper with the contents of the ledger data, you need to tamper with the entire network data to achieve it. However, such a result will inevitably cause a huge change cost.


In short, in the era of big data, the blockchain-based reengineering trust system, whether it is a protocol on the technical level or a scenario on the application and regulatory level, is a major innovation of the traditional trust system.



 

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